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- Beijing Lunar Declaration 2010 -

467 International Lunar Explorers, registered delegates from 26 countries, assembled at GLUC Global Lunar Conference including the 11th ILEWG Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon (ICEUM11) from 31 May to 3 June 2010, in Beijing. The GLUC-ICEUM11 was co-organised by the International Lunar Exploration Working Group (ILEWG), the International Astronautical Federation (IAF) and the Chinese Society of Astronautics (CSA), with the support of China Aerospace Science & Technology Corporation (CASC). More than 50 International and Chinese high-level officials attended the opening ceremony of the Global Lunar Conference and 400 students joined a Youth event at Beijing Institute of Technology.

The conference engaged scientists, engineers, enthusiast explorers, agencies and organisations in the discussion of recent results and activities and the review of plans for exploration. Space agencies representatives gave the latest reports on their current lunar activities and programmes.

GLUC-ICEUM11 was a truly historical meeting that demonstrated the world-wide interest in lunar exploration, discovery, and science.

More than 400 abstracts were accepted for oral and poster presentations in the technical sessions, organised in 32 sessions within 4 symposia: Science and Exploration; Technology and Resource Utilisation; Infrastructure and Human aspects; Moon, Space and Society.

The latest technical achievements and results of recent missions (SMART-1, Kaguya, Chang'E1, Chandrayaan-1, LCROSS and LRO) were discussed at a plenary panel and technical sessions, with the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) still in operation. Chang'E1 has generated many useful results for the community.

Four plenary panel sessions were conducted: 1. What are the plans? 2. New mission results; 3. From space stations and robotic precursors to lunar bases; 4. Moon, Space, Society

The participants summarised their findings, discussions and recommend:

- To continue efforts by agencies and the community on previous ICEUM recommendations, and the continuation of the ILEWG forum, technical groups activities and pilot projects.

1. Science and exploration
- World-wide access to raw and derived (geophysical units) data products using consistent formats and coordinate systems will maximize return on investment. We call to develop and implement plans for generation, validation, and release of these data products.  Data should be made available for scientific analysis and supporting the development and planning of future missions

- There are still Outstanding Questions: Structure and composition of crust, mantle, and core and implications for the origin and evolution of the Earth-Moon system; Timing, origin, and consequences of late heavy bombardment; Impact processes and regolith evolution; Nature and origin of volatile emplacement; Implications for resource utilization. These questions require international cooperation and sharing of results in order to be answered in a cost-effective manner

- Ground truth information on the lunar far side is missing and needed to address many important scientific questions, e.g. with a sample return from South Pole- Aitken Basin

- Knowledge of the interior is poor relative to the surface, and is needed to address a number of key questions, e.g. with International Lunar Network for seismometry and other geophysical measurements

- Lunar missions will be driven by exploration, resource utilization, and science; we should consider minimum science payload for every mission, e.g., landers and rovers should carry instruments to determine surface composition and mineralogy

- It is felt important to have a shared database about previous missions available for free, so as to provide inputs to future missions, including a gap analysis of needed measurements. Highly resolved global data sets are required. Autonomous landing and hazard avoidance will depend on the best topographic map of the Moon, achievable by combining shared data.

- New topics such as life sciences, partial gravity processes on the Moon should be followed in relation to future exploration needs.

2. Technologies and resources
- A number of robotic missions to the Moon are now undertaken independently by various nations, with a degree of exchange of information and coordination.  That should increase towards real cooperation, still allowing areas of competition for keeping the process active, cost-effective and faster.

- Lunar landers, pressurized lunar rover projects as presented from Europe, Asia and America are important steps that can create opportunities for international collaboration, within a coordinated village of robotic precursors and assistants to crew missions.

- We have to think about development, modernization of existing navigation capabilities, and provision of lunar positioning, navigation and data relay assets to support future robotic and human exploration. New concepts and new methods for transportation have attracted much attention and are of great potential.

3. Infrastructures and human aspects
- It is recommended to have technical sessions and activities dealing with different aspects of human adaptation to space environments, the modeling of sub-systems, microbial protection and use of inflatable technologies

- While the Moon is the best and next logical step in human exploration, we should make best use of the space stations as stepping stones for exploration and human spaceflight beyond Low Earth Orbit.

- Further research is needed on lunar dust aspects in regard to humans and interaction with habitats. We note high interest in CELSS for Moon and Mars bases, and recommend further research and development.

- We recommend the development and use of terrestrial analogues research sites and facilities, for technology demonstrations, comparative geology and human performance research, and public engagement. We endorse the proposal of development of a site at La Reunion for international Moon-Mars analogue research.

4. Moon, Space, Society and Young Explorers
- We consider that the current legal regime as set out in the Outer Space Treaty and the Moon agreement are satisfactory for current and future missions, but may require further clarification for future exploration. Issues of transparency and security will need to be addressed.

- Great things are happening for Young Lunar Explorers, with inspiring missions and hands-on activities as coordinated by ILEWG. Lunar exploration is encouraging students of all ages to pursue higher education.
- More possibilities for participatory engagement should be offered to the society for example via interdisciplinary activities with the humanities.

- We appreciate the work from COSPAR panel on Exploration PEX that should be shared further.

- Continued cooperation should be enforced at all levels. The space community feels strongly that joining the forces of space faring nations to explore the Moon should be seriously implemented, with the views of expanding a Global Robotic Village and building in the long run a Manned International Lunar Base.

- We propose that a panel be formed through ILEWG with the help of IAF and Chinese Society of Astronautics in cooperation with space agencies, COSPAR and other stakeholders in order to initiate a permanent International Space Exploration Governance Forum.

We, the participants of the GLUC-ICEUM11 conference, commit to an enhanced global cooperation towards international lunar exploration for the benefit of humankind.

Endorsed by the delegates of GLUC-ICEUM11

Beijing, 2 June 2010

Last Update: 19 March 2013

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