# ESA Science & Technology - Publication Archive

## Publication archive

## Publication archive

^{15}M

_{⊙}. Confirmation of cluster candidates through comparison with existing surveys or cluster catalogues is extensively described, as is the statistical characterization of the catalogue in terms of completeness and statistical reliability. The outputs of the validation process are provided as additional information. This gives, in particular, an ensemble of 813 cluster redshifts, and for all these Planck clusters we also include a mass estimated from a newly-proposed SZ-mass proxy. A refined measure of the SZ Compton parameter for the clusters with X-ray counter-parts is provided, as is an X-ray flux for all the Planck clusters not previously detected in X-ray surveys.

Published: 29 October 2014

Published: 29 October 2014

^{-3}, or v = 369. In addition to this signal generated by Doppler boosting of the CMB monopole, our motion also modulates and aberrates the CMB temperature fluctuations (as well as every other source of radiation at cosmological distances). This is an order 10

^{-3}effect applied to fluctuations which are already one part in roughly 10

^{5}, so it is quite small. Nevertheless, it becomes detectable with the all-sky coverage, high angular resolution, and low noise levels of the Planck satellite. Here we report a first measurement of this velocity signature using the aberration and modulation effects on the CMB temperature anisotropies, finding a component in the known dipole direction, (l,b) = (264°,48°), of 384 km s

^{-1}± 78 km s

^{-1}(stat.) ± 115 km s

^{-1}(syst.). This is a significant confirmation of the expected velocity.

Published: 29 October 2014

_{rec}), both via a direct search for matched circular patterns at the intersections and by an optimal likelihood search for specific topologies. For the latter we consider flat spaces with cubic toroidal (T3), equal-sided chimney (T2) and slab (T1) topologies, three multi-connected spaces of constant positive curvature (dodecahedral, truncated cube and octahedral) and two compact negative-curvature spaces. These searches yield no detection of the compact topology with the scale below the diameter of the last scattering surface. For most compact topologies studied the likelihood maximized over the orientation of the space relative to the observed map shows some preference for multi-connected models just larger than the diameter of the last scattering surface. Since this effect is also present in simulated realizations of isotropic maps, we interpret it as the inevitable alignment of mild anisotropic correlations with chance features in a single sky realization; such a feature can also be present, in milder form, when the likelihood is marginalized over orientations.

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Published: 29 October 2014

_{10}at multipole ℓ = 10. This parameter has been added to the standard six parameter fit using COSMOMC with flat priors. For the Nambu-Goto string model, we have obtained a constraint on the string tension of Gμ/c

^{2}< 1.5 × 10

^{-7}and f

_{10}< 0.015 at 95% confidence that can be improved to Gμ/c

^{2}< 1.3 × 10

^{-7}and f

_{10}< 0.010 on inclusion of high-ℓ CMB data. For the Abelian-Higgs field theory model we find, Gμ

_{AH}/c

^{2}< 3.2 × 10

^{-7}and f

_{10}< 0.028. The marginalised likelihoods for f

_{10}and in the f

_{10}–Ω

_{b}h

^{2}plane are also presented. We have additionally obtained comparable constraints on f

_{10}for models with semilocal strings and global textures. In terms of the effective defect energy scale these are somewhat weaker at Gμ/c

^{2}< 1.1 × 10

^{-6}. We have made complementarity searches for the specific non-Gaussian signatures of cosmic strings, calibrating with all-sky Planck resolution CMB maps generated from networks of post-recombination strings. We have validated our non-Gaussian searches using these simulated maps in a Planck-realistic context, estimating sensitivities of up to ΔGμ/c

^{2}≈ 4 × 10

^{-7}.

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Published: 29 October 2014

_{NL}

^{local}= 2.7 ± 5.8, f

_{NL}

^{equil}= -42 ± 75, and f

_{NL}

^{orth}= -25 ± 39 (68% CL statistical). Non-Gaussianity is detected in the data; using skew-C

_{ℓ}statistics we find a nonzero bispectrum from residual point sources, and the integrated-Sachs-Wolfe-lensing bispectrum at a level expected in the ΛCDM scenario. The results are based on comprehensive cross-validation of these estimators on Gaussian and non-Gaussian simulations, are stable across component separation techniques, pass an extensive suite of tests, and are confirmed by skew-C

_{ℓ}, wavelet bispectrum and Minkowski functional estimators. Beyond estimates of individual shape amplitudes, we present model-independent, three-dimensional reconstructions of the Planck CMB bispectrum and thus derive constraints on early-Universe scenarios that generate primordial NG, including general single-field models of inflation, excited initial states (non-Bunch-Davies vacua), and directionally-dependent vector models. We provide an initial survey of scale-dependent feature and resonance models. These results bound both general single-field and multi-field model parameter ranges, such as the speed of sound, c

_{s}≥ 0.02 (95% CL), in an effective field theory parametrization, and the curvaton decay fraction r

_{D}≥ 0.15 (95% CL). The Planck data significantly limit the viable parameter space of the ekpyrotic/cyclic scenarios.

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Published: 29 October 2014

Published: 29 October 2014

_{s}= 0.9603 ± 0.0073, ruling out exact scale invariance at over 5σ.Planck establishes an upper bound on the tensor-to-scalar ratio of r< 0.11 (95% CL). The Planck data thus shrink the space of allowed standard inflationary models, preferring potentials with V′′< 0. Exponential potential models, the simplest hybrid inflationary models, and monomial potential models of degree n ≥ 2 do not provide a good fit to the data. Planck does not find statistically significant running of the scalar spectral index, obtaining dn

_{s}/ dlnk = − 0.0134 ± 0.0090. We verify these conclusions through a numerical analysis, which makes no slow-roll approximation, and carry out a Bayesian parameter estimation and model-selection analysis for a number of inflationary models including monomial, natural, and hilltop potentials. For each model, we present the Planck constraints on the parameters of the potential and explore several possibilities for the post-inflationary entropy generation epoch, thus obtaining nontrivial data-driven constraints. We also present a direct reconstruction of the observable range of the inflaton potential. Unless a quartic term is allowed in the potential, we find results consistent with second-order slow-roll predictions. We also investigate whether the primordial power spectrum contains any features. We find that models with a parameterized oscillatory feature improve the fit by Δχ

^{2}eff ≈ 10; however, Bayesian evidence does not prefer these models. We constrain several single-field inflation models with generalized Lagrangians by combining power spectrum data with Planck bounds on f

_{NL}.

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Published: 29 October 2014

_{8}.

Published: 29 October 2014

_{8}and matter density parameter Ω

_{m}in a flat ΛCDM model. We test the robustness of our estimates and find that possible biases in the Y–M relation and the halo mass function are larger than the statistical uncertainties from the cluster sample. Assuming the X-ray determined mass to be biased low relative to the true mass by between zero and 30%, motivated by comparison of the observed mass scaling relations to those from a set of numerical simulations, we find that σ

_{8}= 0.75 ± 0.03, Ω

_{m}= 0.29 ± 0.02, and σ

_{8}(Ω

_{m}/ 0.27)

^{0.3}= 0.764 ± 0.025. The value of σ

_{8}is degenerate with the mass bias; if the latter is fixed to a value of 20% (the central value from numerical simulations) we find σ

_{8}(Ω

_{m}/0.27)

^{0.3}= 0.78 ± 0.01 and a tighter one-dimensional range σ

_{8}= 0.77 ± 0.02. We find that the larger values of σ

_{8}and Ω

_{m}preferred by Planck’s measurements of the primary CMB anisotropies can be accommodated by a mass bias of about 40%. Alternatively, consistency with the primary CMB constraints can be achieved by inclusion of processes that suppress power on small scales relative to the ΛCDM model, such as a component of massive neutrinos.

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Published: 29 October 2014

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Published: 29 October 2014

_{10}(M/M

_{⊙}) = 10.5 ± 0.6. Leveraging the frequency dependence of our signal, we isolate the high redshift contribution to the CIB, and constrain the star formation rate (SFR) density at z ≥ 1. We measure directly the SFR density with around 2σ significance for three redshift bins between z = 1 and 7, thus opening a new window into the study of the formation of stars at early times.

Published: 29 October 2014

Published: 29 October 2014

^{2}at ℓ ≲ 1000, in agreement with estimated calibration uncertainties. We compare our results with foreground-cleaned CMB maps derived from all Planck frequencies, as well as with cross-spectra derived from the 70 GHz Planck map, and find broad agreement in terms of spectrum residuals and cosmological parameters. We further show that the best-fit ΛCDM cosmology is in excellent agreement with preliminary PlanckEE and TE polarisation spectra.

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Published: 29 October 2014

_{∗}= (1.04147 ± 0.00062) × 10

^{-2}, Ω

_{b}h

^{2}= 0.02205 ± 0.00028, Ω

_{c}h

^{2}= 0.1199 ± 0.0027, and n

_{s}= 0.9603 ± 0.0073, respectively (note that in this abstract we quote 68% errors on measured parameters and 95% upper limits on other parameters). For this cosmology, we find a low value of the Hubble constant, H

_{0}= (67.3 ± 1.2) km s

^{-1}Mpc

^{-1}, and a high value of the matter density parameter, Ω

_{m}= 0.315 ± 0.017. These values are in tension with recent direct measurements of H

_{0}and the magnitude-redshift relation for Type Ia supernovae, but are in excellent agreement with geometrical constraints from baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) surveys. Including curvature, we find that the Universe is consistent with spatial flatness to percent level precision using Planck CMB data alone. We use high-resolution CMB data together with Planck to provide greater control on extragalactic foreground components in an investigation of extensions to the six-parameter ΛCDM model. We present selected results from a large grid of cosmological models, using a range of additional astrophysical data sets in addition to Planck and high-resolution CMB data.

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Published: 29 October 2014

Published: 29 October 2014

Published: 29 October 2014

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Published: 29 October 2014

_{353}/N

_{H}, from the diffuse to the denser interstellar medium (ISM) is reported. It is associated with a decrease in the observed dust temperature, T

_{obs}, that could be due at least in part to the increased dust opacity. We also report an excess of dust emission at H I column densities lower than 10

^{20}cm

^{-2}that could be the signature of dust in the warm ionized medium. In the diffuse ISM at high Galactic latitude, we report an anticorrelation between τ

_{353}/N

_{H}and T

_{obs}while the dust specific luminosity, i.e., the total dust emission integrated over frequency (the radiance) per hydrogen atom, stays about constant, confirming one of the Planck Early Results obtained on selected fields.

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Published: 29 October 2014

^{-2}s

^{-1}and is dominated by protons incident on the spacecraft with energy >39 MeV, at a rate of typically one event per second per detector. Different categories of glitches have different signatures in the time stream. Two of the glitch types have a low amplitude component that decays over nearly 1 s. This component produces excess noise if not properly removed from the time-ordered data. We have used a glitch detection and subtraction method based on the joint fit of population templates. The application of this novel glitch subtraction method removes excess noise from the time streams. Using realistic simulations, we find that this method does not introduce signal bias into the Planck data.

Published: 29 October 2014

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