ESA Science & Technology - Publication Archive
Here we report the first three-dimensional spatial spectrum of the low frequency magnetic turbulence obtained from the four Cluster spacecraft in the terrestrial magnetosheath close to the magnetopause. We show that the turbulence is compressible and dominated by mirror structures, its energy is injected at a large scale k × rho ~ 0.3 (l~2000 km) via a mirror instability well predicted by linear theory, and cascades nonlinearly and unexpectedly up to k × rho ~ 3.5 (l~150 km), revealing a new power law in the inertial range not predicted by any turbulence theory, and its strong anisotropy is controlled by the static magnetic field and the magnetopause normal.
Stars are born and die in clouds of gas and dust, opaque to most types of radiation, but transparent in the infrared. Requiring complex detectors, space missions and cooled telescopes, infrared astronomy is the last branch of this discipline to come of age. After a very successful sky survey performed in the eighties by the IRAS satellite, the Infrared Space Observatory, in the nineties, brought spectacular advances in the understanding of the processes giving rise to powerful infrared emission by a great variety of celestial sources.
Outstanding results have been obtained on the bright comet Hale-Bopp, and in particular of its water spectrum, as well as on the formation, chemistry and dynamics of planetary objects in the solar system. Ideas on the early stages of stellar formation and on the stellar initial mass function have been clarified.
ISO is the first facility in space able to provide a systematic diagnosis of the physical phenomena and the chemistry in the close environment of pre-main sequence stars, in the interstellar medium, and in the final stages of stellar life, using, among other indicators, molecular hydrogen, ubiquitous crystalline silicates, water and ices.
ISO has dramatically increased our ability to investigate the power production, excitation and fuelling mechanism of galaxies of every type, and has discovered a new very cold dust component in galaxies.
ISO has demonstrated that luminous infrared galaxies were brighter and much more numerous in the past, and that they played a dominant role in shaping present day galaxies and in producing the cosmic infrared background.
This document gives a summary of the work performed within ESA Contract No. 16854/03/NL/HB "Development of a compact Geochemistry Instrument Package Facility (GIPF)". Main objective of this study was the development and assembly of a compact instrument facility for in-situ geochemistry sample analysis in planetary research. Several work packages listed in chapter 2 below have been performed, from the assessment of different geochemistry methods to final testing of the hardware and steps described to achieve a flight model for a given mission. The design was driven by the proposed BepiColombo mission to be used on a lander on planet Mercury. In other words BepiColombo was the "reference mission" for the presented study. The study was lead by von Hoerner & Sulger GmbH, Schwetzingen. Subcontracts to built the spectrometers and the camera have been placed at University of Mainz, Max-Planck-Institut für Chemie, Mainz and DLR, Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Berlin.