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Technology Readiness Level (TRL)

Technology Readiness Level (TRL)

The ESA Science Technology Development Route

The technical maturity of instruments and spacecraft sub-systems with respect to a specific space application are classified according to a "Technology Readiness Level" (TRL) on a scale of 1 to 9. ESA uses the ISO standard 16290 Space systems – Definition of the Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) and their criteria assessment.


Technology Readiness Level Summary

TRL Level Description
1 Basic principles observed and reported
2 Technology concept and/or application formulated
3 Analytical and experimental critical function and/or characteristic proof-of-concept
4 Component and/or breadboard functional verification in laboratory environment
5 Component and/or breadboard critical function verification in relevant environment
6 Model demonstrating the critical functions of the element in a relevant environment
7 Model demonstrating the element performance for the operational environment
8 Actual system completed and accepted for flight ("flight qualified")
9 Actual system "flight proven" through successful mission operations


Technology Readiness Levels. Credit: ESA


Last Update: 10 September 2020
14-Jul-2024 11:48 UT

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