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Origin of name
Jupiter is named after the most important deity in the Roman pantheon; brother of Neptune, Pluto, and of his wife, Juno.

Named after characters from the Jovian mythology.

ESA Missions
Flybys by Ulysses and Cassini-Huygens.


Ulysses first flew by Jupiter in April 1998 and made use of Jupiter's gravitational pull to be put in an orbit with a high inclination to the ecliptic. The 6.2 year orbit makes it possible for Ulysses to study the Sun's polar regions.

Cassini-Huygens passed by Jupiter in December 2000 at a distance of 137 Jupiter radii. The energy that Cassini gained from this gravity assist was used to reach Saturn in July 2004.





Physical Properties


Property Unit Value Earth = 1
Equatorial radius, 1 bar level km 71 492 11.209
Polar radius, 1 bar level km 66 854 10.517
Flattening   0.06487 19.36
Mass  (x1024) kg 1898.6 317.83
Volume  (x1010) km3 143 128 1321.33
Mean density kgm-3 1326 0.240
Gravity at equator, 1 bar level ms-2 24.79 2.530
Escape velocity kms-1 59.5 5.32
Magnetic field at equator  (x10-4) T 4.28 14.03
Magnetic dipole moment  (x1020) Tm3 ~ 1.55 ~ 20 000
Tilt of dipole axis ° 9.6  
Dipole field centre offset from planet centre (equatorial radii)   0.14  
Number of natural satellites   63  


Orbital Parameters


Property Unit Value
Perihelion  (x106) km 740.52
Aphelion  (x106) km 816.62
Mean distance from the Sun  (x106) km 778.30
Mean distance from the Sun AU 5.20
Eccentricity   0.0489
Sidereal orbit period y 11.862
Sidereal rotation period
System III (1965.0) coordinates
h 9.9250
Length of day h 9.9259
Orbit inclination to Ecliptic ° 1.304
Mean orbital velocity kms-1 13.07
Maximum orbital velocity kms-1 13.72
Minimum orbital velocity kms-1 12.44
Axial tilt ° 3.13


  • Sidereal orbit period
    The time taken by the planet to complete exactly one orbit around the Sun with respect to the celestial sphere.
  • Sidereal rotation period
    The time in which the planet rotates around its axis exactly 360° with respect to the celestial sphere.
  • Length of a day
    Defined as the time between two successive sunrises over the meridian.
  • Magnetic dipole moment
    Calculated as the ratio of the magnetic field strength at the equator divided by the cube of the equatorial radius.


Last Update: 1 September 2019
19-Apr-2021 16:39 UT

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