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The Sun

The Sun


Latin name

The Sun is a G2 V type star and resides at the centre of our Solar System. Its mass is 745 times that of all the eight planets combined.

ESA Missions

Launched in 1990, the Ulysses spacecraft is in a highly elliptical orbit that takes it over the poles of our Sun. It has made the first-ever extensive set of observations of the Sun's polar regions over a long period of time.


Launched in 1995, SOHO co-rotates with the Earth around the Sun at a virtual point between the Sun and the Earth at a distance of 1.5 million kilometres from the Earth. From here SOHO can continuously observe the Sun. Its instruments are designed to investigate the Sun from its core outward to the surface, atmosphere, corona and solar wind.



Physical Properties


Property Unit Value Earth=1
Volumetric mean radius km 696 000 109.2
Flattening   0.00005 0.015
Mass  (×1024) kg 1 989 100 333 000
Volume  (×1012) km3 1 412 000 1 304 000
Mean density kgm3 1408 0.255
Surface gravity at the equator ms2 274.0 28.0
Escape velocity kms-1 617.6 55.2
Luminosity  (×1024) W 384.6  
Mass conversion rate  (×106) kgs-1 4300  
Mean energy production  (×10-3) J kg-1 0.1937  
Surface emission  (×106) Wm-2 63.29  
Absolute magnitude   4.83  
Spectral type   G2 V  


Rotational Properties


Property Unit Value Earth=1
Rotation period at equator d 25.6 25.6
Rotation period 60° latitude d 30.9 30.9
Axial tilt ° 7.25 0.309
Last Update: 1 September 2019
24-May-2024 13:14 UT

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