MARSIS ionogram with electron cyclotron echoes
MARSIS sounding measurements of the ionosphere are plotted in an ionogram. The intensity of the reflected signal is colour coded. The time delay between transmission of the pulse by the MARSIS electric dipole antenna and the detection of the reflected signal is along the vertical axis. The frequency of the transmitted pulse is along the horizontal axis.
In this example the different observable features are annotated. The electron cyclotron echoes are clearly visible as the regularly spaced horizontal features on the left-hand side of the plot.